By atherosclerosis the inside of the arteries is thickened, solidified and hardened, making the space for blood flow be limited or close. This will diminish the oxygen supply to nearby or far off tissues.
The primary symptom of this is a pain, poor organ function, and bad general condition. The further outcomes are tissue harm, now and again intense harm in light of the fact that by the stop of bloodstream caused by a sudden blood clump shaped in the limited territories.
The Mechanisms and causes of atherosclerosis
The internal walls of the arteries consist of the deepest layer of endothelial cells (surface cells) and under these a layer of smooth muscle cells. The progressions by atherosclerosis happen under the endothelial cells and in this muscle layer. The progressions comprise of: A specific level of cell expansion or tumor, a social affair of cholesterol and fat. Statement of calcium salts. Statement of blood components like fibrin.
The deposits are called atherosclerotic plaque or atheroma. Atherosclerosis is one of a few kinds of supply route thickening and solidifying. A typical name for thickening and solidifying of veins is “arteriosclerosis”. Regularly atherosclerosis is likewise just called arteriosclerosis.
The advancement of atherosclerosis most likely starts by a harm in the endothelium. This harm makes cholesterol and fat enter into the vessel dividers and store there. This likewise prompts cells to multiply. Later likewise calcium salts are saved.
Factors that cause endothelial damage and thus atherosclerosis are:
- High content of cholesterol in the blood.
- High content of blood fat and especially saturated fat.
- Inflammation in the blood vessels. A sign of such inflammation is the presence of a substance called c-reactive protein.
- High amount of oxidation agents in the blood.
- High blood pressure.
- High content of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood serum, and low content of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in the blood. Lipoprotein is a combination of a protein molecule and fat or cholesterol. Lipoproteins carry cholesterol or fat from place to place.
- High age.
- Men have a somewhat higher chance of getting this condition than women
- A high content of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood serum.
Many of these factors are ultimately caused by a bad diet and lack of daily exercise.
The symptoms and consequences of Arteriosclerosis
Since atherosclerosis can affect all body parts, the symptoms will vary. However, general symptoms from the affected body parts are:
- Decreased performance, easy to tire out.
- Pain by physical activity, so-called anoxic pain.
- By severe impairment of blood flow, tissue damage or sores can occur.
When the heart is affected, the symptoms will be:
- General bad condition.
- Anoxic pain from the heart and surroundings by a physical activity called angina pectoris.
- The feeling of not getting enough air, or breathing problems.
Atherosclerosis can cause blood clots that close the blood flow. There are several ways this can occur:
- The atherosclerotic plaque can rupture, making a sore in the inner wall of the vessel. At such a sore blood can coagulate, making a blood clot.
- The atherosclerotic plaque itself can grow to close a blood vessel.
- Blood coagulated at an affected area can tear loose, float with the bloodstream to another place and prop a blood vessel at the new place.
- A portion of the plaque itself can tear itself loose and clog another blood vessel.
When the heart is stricken by a blood clot, heart tissue is suddenly destroyed, a condition called heart infarction, causing sudden heart failure or death.
When a blood clot strikes the brain, brain tissue is destroyed or impaired, causing paralysis, decreased consciousness, coma or other sudden functional impairments.
The Prevention and Treatment of Arteriosclerosis
Atherosclerosis can be prevented and to some extent be cured by these measures, of which most are lifestyle adjustments:
- Eating just a little or moderate amount of fat.
- Eating just a moderate amount of sugar.
- The fat eaten should be a blending of different types of unsaturated fat from sources like Olive oil, rape oil, sunflower oil, soy oil, walnut oil, and fish. Then you will get enough of mono-unsaturated fat, omega-3-unsaturated fat, and omega-6-polyunsaturated fat, but not too much of any of them.
- Eating much fish and just a little red meat.
- Eating a good amount of fruit and vegetables each day.
- Supply of enough vitamins, minerals, and anti-oxidants.
- Only consuming a moderate amount of salt.
- Stop smoking.
- Getting high blood pressure treated if lifestyle measures do not bring blood pressure down.
- Daily exercise fitted for one’s own condition.
- Eliminate stress in daily life and at the job.
- Stressing down and getting enough rest.
By elevated cholesterol levels that don’t respond appropriately to the way of life measures, cholesterol bringing down drug can be utilized, for example, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.
By genuine neighborhood narrowing of a supply route, medical procedure to get out or extend the vein is at times performed. Once in a while, the supply route is supplanted by a unite taken from another body part or by a fake vessel. At the point when this is done in the heart, it is indicated as detour medical procedure.
Elective treatment to get out the supply routes is an alternative. There is, for instance, a treatment comprising of utilizing the substance EDTA to divert constituents of plaque from the veins. The particles of this substance can grasp around different atoms, for instance, cholesterol particles, and divert them. There is anyway a contention about the viability of this treatment, called chelating treatment.